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1780s Thomas Malthus
1890 U.S. Government declares frontier closed
1891 Forest Reserve Act (1891)
1892 John Muir (1892), preservationist
1892 Sierra Club
1900 Lacey Act (1900)
1900-1909 Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt (early 1901-1909 The Golden Age of Conservation)
1902 Reclamation Act (1902)
1905 Audobon Society, founding of (1905)
1905 Gifford Pinchot (1905)
1906 Antiquities Act (1906)
1908 Svante Arhenius (1908)
1910 Alice Hamilton (1910?)
1916 Woodrow Wilson and National Park Service Act (1916)
1918 Migratory Bird Treaty Act (1918)
1930s Franklin D. Roosevelt (early 1930s stuff … think history class!)
1933 Civilian Conservation Corps (1933)
1933 Tennessee Valley Authority (1933?)
1934 Dust Bowl begins in Midwest (1934)
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1967 Environmental Defense Fund (1967)
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The Environental Defense Fund is a nonprofit environmental organization.
Their mission statement “is to preserve the natural systems on which all life depends. Guided by science, [they] design and transform markets to bring lasting solutions to the most serious environmental problems.”
Environmental Defense Fund is dedicated to protecting the environmental rights of all people, including future generations. Among these rights are access to clean air and water, healthy and nourishing food, and flourishing ecosystems.
Their goals are:
Avoid catastrophic consequences of climate change by reducing greenhouse gas pollution and applying effective adaptation strategies
Protect ocean ecosystems by creating sustainable and healthy fisheries
Preserve critical land and freshwater ecosystems for the benefit of people and wildlife
Safeguard human health by reducing or eliminating environmental threats, including toxic chemicals and pollution
They have more than 350 scientists, economists, attorneys and other professionals on
staff and they have a budget of 104.5 million dollars.
Some accomplishments include:
: A small group of scientists incorporates our organization as Environmental Defense Fund after winning a ban on the pesticide DDT, which was harming wildlife, especially birds of prey.
: EDF helps bring all hunted whales onto the U.S. endangered species list.
: Our campaign curbs the use of the hazardous flame retardant TRIS in children’s sleepwear.
We help convince federal regulators to end the use of leaded gasoline.
: The Clean Air Act uses EDF’s innovative market-based approach to cut air pollution, leading to a 52% drop in acid rain between 1990–2008.
: McDonald’s accepts the recommendation of our joint task force, eventually eliminating more than 150,000 tons of packaging waste.
: We launch our Safe Harbor program to give landowners new incentives to protect endangered wildlife. Today more than four million acres of habitat are being protected.
: EDF helps the Panará Indians of Brazil win protection for their homeland, saving 1.2 million acres of Amazon rainforest.
: EDF helps win passage of California’s first-in-the-nation law to reduce global warming emissions from cars and trucks.
: Our partnership with Fed Ex puts hybrid electric trucks on the road. The new trucks cut smog-causing emissions by 65%, reduce soot by 96% and get 50% better mileage.
: Regulators approve EDF’s proposed management method, catch shares, to end commercial overfishing of red snapper in the Gulf of Mexico. Catch-share programs have made fisheries more sustainable while increasing
per-boat revenues by 80%.
: We help win permanent protection for a chain of pristine islands in Hawaii, forming the world’s largest marine reserve.
: Our hard-hitting campaign against the Texas utility TXU leads to a landmark buyout deal that blocks a new wave of dirty coal plants.
: EDF helps persuade the U.S. to cut diesel pollution from new oceangoing vessels by 80% or more. Our multi-year efforts also pay off in new EPA rules to curb diesel pollution from barges, ferries and trains.
: EDF is instrumental in House passage of an historic bill capping and reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. EDF contributed five years of scientific and economic research, expert testimony in Congress and nonstop efforts to persuade undecided House members in 40 key districts to vote yes.
: We help win major reforms in California water law to provide water for California’s farms and growing population while leaving enough in rivers for wildlife. The New York Times called it the “most comprehensive” water package since the 1967.
Environmental Defense Fund
The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) was founded in 1967 by scientists who had a goal of making the environment last.
The EDF uses sound science, economic incentives, and corporate partnerships to influence the environment.
Relying on science, they order the guidelines for civillians to follow in order to preserve the Earth.
EDF was the first nonprofit organization to control whole markets, and limit environmental harm while still making economic progress.
Teaming with farmers, all the way to Fortune 500 companies, the EDF improves environmental incluences of companies, helping their businesses save money, while they also save the environment at the same time.
Some of the few contributions they have had to the environment are:
DDT ban, which helped recover the dying population of ospreys.
Cut the acid rainfall in half.
Partnership with Fed Ex puts electric trucks on the road cutting smog emissions by 65%, reduce soot by 96%, and get 50% better gas mileage.
Convince federal regulators to end the use of leaded gasoline.
Mcdonald's accepts a recommendation by the EDF, eliminating 150,000 tons of packaging waste.
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