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1780s Thomas Malthus
1890 U.S. Government declares frontier closed
1891 Forest Reserve Act (1891)
1892 John Muir (1892), preservationist
1892 Sierra Club
1900 Lacey Act (1900)
1900-1909 Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt (early 1901-1909 The Golden Age of Conservation)
1902 Reclamation Act (1902)
1905 Audobon Society, founding of (1905)
1905 Gifford Pinchot (1905)
1906 Antiquities Act (1906)
1908 Svante Arhenius (1908)
1910 Alice Hamilton (1910?)
1916 Woodrow Wilson and National Park Service Act (1916)
1918 Migratory Bird Treaty Act (1918)
1930s Franklin D. Roosevelt (early 1930s stuff … think history class!)
1933 Civilian Conservation Corps (1933)
1933 Tennessee Valley Authority (1933?)
1934 Dust Bowl begins in Midwest (1934)
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Montreal Protocol (1987)
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
is an international conformity designed to stop the degradation of the stratospheric ozone layer.
The treaty was first opened for signature on September 16, 1987 and was significantly amended in 1990 and 1992. Since its formal enactment on January 1, 1989, the Montreal Protocol has been ratified by almost 200 states around the world. Also the protocol has been amended many times by several different nations, for example: London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Bangkok (1993), Vienna (1995), Montreal (1997), and Beijing (1999).
The Montreal Protocol was enacted in order to raise awareness and limit the production and use of ozone depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s). Earth’s ozone layer, though we cannot see it, is possibly the greatest line o defense against the Sun.
As well as monitoring the production and use of CFC’s the protocol suggests safer alternatives for CFC usage, such as HCFC’s and HFC’s. These alternatives are meant to provide a safer option for the environment as well as maintaining the benefits received from CFC use.
Without the ozone layer Earth would be completely exposed to the harmful UV rays that are emitted by the sun. Though it is powerful now, without the ozone layer the Sun would be deadly.
Other documents have been arranged based on the framework of the Montreal Protocol.
The Montreal Protocol has been successful since it’s enactment, the abundance of ozone depleting chemicals in the atmosphere has decreased.
The Montreal Protocol
On Substance that Deplete the Ozone Layer
By: Samantha Ansara
The Antarctic Ozone Hole
In 1987, the Montreal Protocol was when the ozone layer got thinner because of
pollution. The ozone layer helped us because it protected the Earth from harmful radiation, like ultraviolet. In the past 20 years, the EPA found a way to protect the ozone layer protecting the Earth. The reason that it was called the Montreal Protocol was because the gathered in Montreal, Canada, to celebrate their success on protecting the environment and human health.
Chlorofluorocarbons Depletes The Ozone Layer
20 years after it came into effect
Since they started the Montreal Protocol, the ozone layer has not been getting smaller. The Montreal Protocol slows the process. The Montreal Protocol takes away the depleting of the ozone layer. Chemicals caused it to deplete. They created a strong partnership with the Multilateral Fund, also known as MLF, to preserve human health and the environment by protecting the earth’s ozone layer. CFC's, also known as Chlorofluorocarbons, are depleting the Earth.
“The Montreal Protocol's ultimate success will be based on having created an enduring global commitment to stop producing and consuming substances that deplete the ozone layer. This commitment must be maintained across boundaries and by all peoples of the world. The sustainability of our efforts requires empowered partners for technical innovation, policy implementation and project management” (World Bank).
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